Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Artigas y el gobierno de Buenos Aires

La relación entre el caudillo uruguayo José Gervasio Artigas y el gobierno de Buenos Aires se habían agravado cuando la Asamblea del Año XIII decidió rechazar los diputados orientales (debido a que este cuerpo constituyente era de tendencia unitaria, mientras que el caudillo uruguayo queria organizar al país en un sistema federal). Ante esta situación, en enero de 1814, Artigas se retiró con sus tropas del sitio de Montevideo, donde los patriotas intentaban forzar la rendición del virrey español Francisco Javier de Elío. Como repuesta a esta retirada, el Director Supremo Posadas lo declaró "enemigo de la patria", ofreciendo recompensa por su captura.

La actitud del Director Supremo no hizo otra cosa que ahondar el antagonismo entre el gobierno de Buenos Aires y el caudillo uruguayo, quien encabezaría un gran movimiento de resistencia que incluyó la Banda Oriental y las provincias argentinas del litoral. Para ejercer la hegemonía sobre éstas, contaba con el apoyo de caudillos locales, como Eusebio Hereñú de Entre Ríos, y de Genaro Perugorría de Corrientes. A éstas, se les uniría Santa Fe, que adhirió formalmente a las políticas de Artigas. En marzo de 1815 formaron la denominada Liga de los Pueblos Libres, siendo elegido como Protector José Gervasio de Artigas.

Ante la convocatoria del Congreso de Tucumán, el caudillo oriental intentó hacer fracasar la asamblea, organizando un congreso federal en la ciudad de Paysandú. También luchó a favor de los santafesinos y entrerrianos cuando las tropas del Director Supremo invadieron esas provincias para sujetarlas a la obediencia del gobierno unitario.

En julio de 1816, se produjo la invasión portuguesa a la Banda Oriental. Aunque Artigas lo sabía de antemano y había preparado un plan defensivo, fue derrotado tras feroz resistencia en la batalla de Tacuarembó en enero de 1820 y debió trasladarse a la provincia de Entre Ríos. El punto culminante de la política federalista de Artigas fue cuando los caudillos Estanislao López, de Santa Fe, y Francisco Ramirez, de Entre Ríos, vencieron a las tropas del Directorio en la batalla de Cepeda el 1 de febrero de 1820. Esta victoria de los caudillos del litoral provocaría la caída del Directorio y, por ende, la disolución del gobierno de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata. A este acontecimiento le siguiria un período caos conocido como la Anarquía del Año 20.

Cuando las provincias de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos firmaron un pacto (Tratado del Pilar) con el nuevo gobernador de  Buenos Aires Manuel de Sarratea, José Gervasio Artigas se sintió traicionado por los caudillos del litoral y viajó al Paraguay, donde viviría el resto de sus días en un largo exilio.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Operation Cerberus (WW2)

Operation Cerberus (Unternehmen Cerberus) was a World War II German military operation by which a German Navy (Kriegsmarine) task force sucessfully ran a British blockade, sailing from Brest in Brittany to their home bases in Germany via the English Channel. Operation Cerberus was launched on February 11, 1942, triggering a fierce, two-day naval engagement in which the German Kriegsmarine obtained a tactical victory over the British Navy. The Germans sank one destroyer and shot down 42 aircraft.

The German fleet that took part in Operation Cerberus consisted of two battleships (Scharnhorst and Gneisenau), one heavy cruiser (Prinz Eugen), six destroyers and fourteen torpedo boats; around 200 German fighters participated in the operation, escorting and protecting the German ships against British air attacks. Unternehmen Cerberus is also known by the English as Operation Channel Dash.

Reason for Operation Cerberus

After the invasion of France, the German ships could be repaired, refitted, and refueled at Brest Harbor on the French coast of the English Channel. Nevertheless, they were subject to frequent British air raids. Due to these attacks that endangered important German ships, Adolf Hitler ordered the Kriegsmarine to move the ships to their home bases. Although the Berlin Admiralty preferred the Denmark Strait passage, they finally decided to take the shorter but more dangerous route through the English Channel.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

1st Panzer Army (WW2)

The 1st Panzer Army was a World War II German tank army, which was an important armored component of the Wehrmacht field forces that fought on the Eastern Front. Known as the 1.Panzerarmee in German, it was created on November 16, 1940. However, until late 1941, this military unit was smaller in size and power as it had first been designated 1st Panzer Group, or Panzer Group Kleist, since it was under the command of Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist.

From December 1940 to March 1941, 1st Panzer Group was deployed in occupied France. In April 1941, it participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia as part of Field Marshal Maximilian von Weichs's 2nd Army. Panzer Group Kleist spearheaded the advance of the 2nd Army into Yugoslavia, and quickly smashed the Yugoslavian Fifth and Sixth Armies before entering Belgrade. It was composed of the III, XIV and XLVIII Army Corps (mot.) with five panzer divisions and four motorized SS divisions equipped with 799 tanks. During Operation Barbarossa, 1st Panzer Group was part of Army Group South, commanded by Gerd von Rundstedt, which fought on the Eastern Front against the Red Army. Panzer Group Kleist took part in the Battle of Brody which involved as many as 1,000 Red Army tanks.

During Operation Barbarossa, on Octber 6, 1941, after the Battle of Kiev, the 1st Panzer Group was reinforced, refitted, and redesignated 1st Panzer Army. After that, this powerful German Army unit began its thrust on Rostov. Together with the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler led by Oberstgruppenfuhrer Sepp Dietrich, the First Panzer Army successfully captured the city of Rostov in November 1941, but due to lack of logistic, von Kleist ordered his Panzer Army to pull out of the city and retreat a 70 miles to prevent his men from being trapped in a Red Army encirclement.

In January 1942, Army Group von Kleist, which consisted of the 1st Panzer Army along with the Seventeenth Army, was formed with its namesake, von Kleist, in command. Army Group von Kleist played a major role in repulsing the Red Army attack in the Second Battle of Kharkov in May 1942. After the Battle of Stalingrad, by February 1943, it had been withdrawn west of the Don River, and von Kleist withdrew the remains of his forces from the Caucasus into the Kuban area, east of the Strait of Kerch.

The 1st Panzer Army remained attached to Army Group South until July 1944. By that time German troops had been pulled out from the Ukraine, and the Soviets were threatening Warsaw. In March 1944, this armored unit was encircled by two Soviet fronts in the Battle of Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket. Nevertheless, a successful breakthrough was made, saving most of the manpower but losing the heavy equipment. Until May 1945, the 1st Panzer Army fought its entire time on the Eastern Front. The 1st Panzer Army was disbanded on May 8, 1945. Its last commander was General Wilhelm Hasse.

1st Panzer Army in Battle of Rostov in 1942 (footage)

43 Royal Marine Commando (WWII)

The 43 Royal Marine Commando was a World War II unit of British Royal Marines Commandos. Created on August 1, 1943, the unit consisted of about 450 men organized into a headquarters.

The 43 Commando was composed of five infantry troops, each one consisting of three officers and 100 other ranks, and armed with Vickers machine guns, 3-inch mortars and 6-pounder anti-tank guns—and a signals platoon.

From 1943 to 1945 the No. 43 Royal Marine Commando fought ferociously in many battles in Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece. In Yugoslavia, the unit supported the operations of Marshall Tito's Partisans in 1944. In Italy, this Royal Marine Commando also participated in Operation Roast at Lake Comacchio, in 1945.

43 Royal Marine Commando Operation Roast WW2

The Roman Centurion

The Centurion is one of the best piece of historical fiction you can download from Amazon and read at home. It takes place at the beginning of the Dark Ages, around the 6th Century. Lucius Dentatus is the commander of a Roman military outpost situated on the southern border of Byzantium (the Eastern Roman Empire). His legion mission is to stop any type of foreign military incursion into the southern perimeter areas of the Empire. This time a powerful enemy, bringing a new form of monotheism, is coming from the far south, the Arabian peninsula. A formidable military encounter takes place. The Primus Pilus Centurion shows not only steel courage and determination to overcome obstacles but also a powerful moral strength arising from the ancient polytheistic Roman culture...

To read the whole story click on the button below.


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Judgement Day (best story)

Published on Amazon, The Devil's Spot is the best Judgement Day fiction story. It's a short novel that will blow your mind and turn your view of the world upside down. Reading it to the very end will challenge your monotheistic moral scaffolding. It's gripping and spellbinding. Don't miss it; click on the button down below.

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The main character is Julius, who led an ordinary life working as a welder and mechanic in his home workshop when, on a hot sunny day, he observed an eerie and perfectly round shadow in his house backyard being projected down to Earth by an uncanny object hovering high in the sky. It was much darker than ordinary shadow. At first, they thought it could be a black hole, but it turned out to be a..."The low-pitched acoustic vibration rose in frequency and strength..." He did not know that Ragnarok was about to break out loose upon the Earth.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Domingo Cavallo pronóstico y consejos 2019-2020

Durante la entrevista televisiva del programa La Mirada de Roberto García, del 8 de abril de 2019, que emitió el Canal 26, el Dr Domingo Cavallo, ex ministro de economía de Carlos Menem, advirtió a la población, al gobierno nacional y a su sucesor sobre el peligro inminente de una hiperinflación si no se toman las medidas acertadas para evitarlas. También aconsejó a Mauricio Macri de autorizar los contratos salariales y de jubilaciones en dólares, es decir de dolarizar los salarios y juvilaciones en forma voluntaria y libremente pactadas entre las partes: empleador y trabajador; como así también los depósitos en dolares y sus uso y conversión libremente. Esto evitaría la futura indexación obligada o forzosa, que perpetúa la ya alta inflación. Esta dolarización parcial es la mejor forma de desacelerar rápidamente la inflación de arrastre.

Abajo entrevista completa al Dr Cavallo