Friday, August 23, 2013

Romanticismo

El romanticismo fue un movimiento literario y filosófico que se inició en Francia hacia fines del siglo XVIII y se extendió hasta mediados del siglo XIX, propagándose por Alemania, Inglaterra y otros países europeos. Surgió a partir de las ideas liberales e igualitarias de la Revolución Francesa como una rebelión contra las reglas del clasisismo y las convenciones sociales tradicionales.

Características

El romanticismo se caracterizó por un mayor interés del hombre por la naturaleza, un énfasis en las expresiones emocionales y la imaginación, individualismo, exaltación de la razón y el intelecto, creencia en las bondades de la humanidad, etc. Pero también se caracterizó, sobre todo en Alemania, por un fuerte sentimiento nacionalista, que fue creciendo durante el siglo XIX.

Representantes

En Francia el romanticismo está representado por el escritor Victor Hugo y el pintor Eugene Delacroix. En Alemania por Johann von Goethe y Heinrich Heine en literatura, y Richard Wagner en música. En España por los escritores Mariano José de Larra y José de Espronceda. En Argentina por el escritor Estevan Etcheverría. En EEUU, por Edgar Allan Poe.



Romanticism and nationalism (English)

Romanticism was a literary and philosophical movement which began in Europe at the end of the 18th century, sparking nationalism in some countries at the beginning of the 19th century. Romanticism arose in the wake of the French Revolution, which unleashed a new political idea in Europe, with the notion that States should constitute the whole of a people or nation, from the ethnic and cultural point of view. Hence, France was the nation of the French and should include all of them. In this regard, the State should no longer represents the king and its dynastic family, but the common people. If the French Revolution introduced this new concept of a nation, Napoleonic invasion of Germany and Prussia, with the chain of abuse committed by the foraging and marauding French troops in Teutonic territories, such as looting, pillaging, stealing cattle, raping and murdering of farmers, triggered a profound nationalism that had racial implications; thus, in Germany, Romanticism meant nationalism, which would later lead to the German unification between 1866 and 1871, led by Prussia.

This nationalistic Romanticism in Germany spread to every aspect of culture, including music and literature. Thus, Multi-ethnic empires, such as the Ottoman Turks, were threatened with fragmentation and extinction as this idea found political and military expression. In 1848, a wave of nationalist revolts burst across Europe, sweeping a revolutionary government into power in Hungary and threatening to overturn the Prussian and French regimes. In 1861 nationalism contributed to the unification of Italy with Giuseppe Garibaldi playing an important role. Similarly, nationalist feelings contributed to the decay of the Ottoman Empire, from the Greek declaration of independence in 1821. All these movements appealed to a national ideal, inspiring a fervor that loyalty to a dynasty, or remote imperial power, had almost never been able to do.

In Germany, there were many writers who supported the German unification and contributed to spread nationalism among the German-speaking population. Philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, who wrote "Addresses to the German Nation", poet Ernst Moritz Ardnt, and Professor Friedrich Ludwig Jahn were the most widely-known representatives of the German nationalism in the 19th century, prior to Franco-Prussian War(1870-1871), which led to the unification of Germany as the German Empire.